Punjab University BA and BSc annual examinations result 2013
PU BA result
Lahore, Aug 20: The Punjab University is declaring BA and BSc annual examinations 2013 results on Wednesday.
The prize distribution ceremony for position holders will be
organised at varsity's Al-Raazi Hall Undergraduate Block, Quaid-i-Azam
Campus, at 9am. PU acting Vice-Chancellor Prof Dr Liaqat Ali will be the
chief guest on the occasion.
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Teaching Urdu as a second language
Islamabad: Although Urdu is Pakistan's national language, an interesting debate
that often resurfaces is that the native speakers of Urdu hardly
constitute 10 per cent of Pakistan's population.
Prof Fateh Mohammed Malik had stirred up a sort of controversy when a
few years ago he surmised that Urdu was Punjab's mother tongue, hence
the number of native speakers of Urdu was much higher than usually
Though Dr Atash Durrani, a research scholar and an educationist, does
not go to that extent as to call Urdu Punjab's mother tongue, he
believes that Urdu cannot be called anybody's 'mother tongue' in true
sense of the word as it is very difficult to determine 'Urdu's native
speakers'. Most of the speakers of Urdu in fact speak 'Pakistani Urdu'
and they know or speak another language - an indigenous or local
language or a regional dialect of Urdu - and the statistics showing the
numbers and ratio of native speakers of Urdu are misleading, says Dr
Durrani in his new book Ilm-i-tadrees-i-Urdu. He says that by the number
of people, who 'speak' Urdu, Urdu is ranked third amongst the languages
of the world after English and Chinese. He admits that Unesco has
dubbed it as "Hindustani", which includes both Urdu and Hindi, but if
Urdu and Hindi are put together, Urdu or Hindustani would be world's
second largest language by the number of speakers.
The fact is that in today's world the use of the term 'first
language' is preferred over the term 'mother tongue' in certain
contexts. And first language is, says David Crystal in his The Penguin
dictionary of language "the language first acquired by a child (also
called the mother tongue or native language) or preferred in a
multilingual situation. The second context may not be identical to the
first; for example, the children of many European emigrants to the USA
have come to use English as a first language. A native speaker is
someone for whom a particular language is a first language." About
second language, Mr Crystal says it is "a language which is not a
person's mother tongue, but which is learned in order to meet a
communicative need. Immigrants commonly learn the language of their host
nation as a second language. Often, a country chooses to give a
language official status as a second language, using it as a medium of
government, law, education, or the media - a role played, for example,
by English or French in many countries of Africa".
In Pakistan, one feels, for most people Urdu has become second
language, and in many cases even first language. In addition to being
widely used by print and electronic media and, as a result, becoming
Pakistan's lingua franca, it has established a role at the social level,
too. Though many upper-class Pakistani families use English as first
language now, in many cases - especially in middle-class Punjabi
families - Urdu is preferred over 'mother tongue'. In fact, Urdu has
become their first language and now they are the 'native speakers' of
But this book of Dr Durrani's is basically concerned with the
teaching of Urdu and he thinks that since Urdu is not a 'native
language' or 'mother tongue', its teaching has to be much different from
the teaching of mother tongue. In other words, Urdu should be taught as
a second language. The book, published by Lahore's Nazeer Sons
Educational Publishers, spreads over 500 pages and 28 chapters,
comprehensively covering all the aspects of teaching of Urdu, right from
pedagogical problems to curriculum designing, from textbooks to
teaching literature and from teaching Urdu to foreigners to developing
Since Dr Durrani has been associated with practical aspects of
teaching and has carried out research on the subject, his approach is
not limited to a literary discourse but he has tried to establish the
epistemological basis of teaching of Urdu. In fact this is a completely
revised and updated version of one of his previous works and the
addition of a few new chapters has made it more useful.
But one has to disagree with Dr Durrani on some aspects, especially
in the first chapter where he describes Urdu's phonetic and linguistic
peculiarities. He has, for example, said that "the number of letters in
Urdu alphabet is increasing by the day".
I don't think this will go down well with the linguists and teachers
of Urdu. Number of letters in an alphabet is not something that changes
every day. He has also mentioned that Urdu has 58 letters. I am sorry to
say that it is incorrect. Dr Durrani has every right to disagree but at
least he could have mentioned that this number is debateable and
experts disagree by a wide margin, some putting it at 36 or 38 and Urdu
Dictionary Board puts it at 53. Though the national language authority
had declared that the number was 58, later when it published an Urdu
primer it set the number at 54. This writer has discussed this issue in
one of his pieces in these columns in recent years and the purpose of
raising this issue again is just to remind the learned writer that if
the opinion is divided on some issue, readers have a right to know the
other side of the argument as well, just as he has mentioned the
difference of opinion when discussing Urdu vowels.
Similarly, he has mentioned that Urdu letter 'vaw' or vaao', in
addition to being used as a vowel, is used as an equivalent to the
consonant "w". The fact is "w" is not a consonant: the sound it
represents is a semi-vowel. And 'vaw' represents 'v'.
In the intro to the book, Dr Durrani has paid rich tribute to Saleem
Farani and Farman Fatehpuri for writing the earliest books in Pakistan
on how to teach Urdu.
These two scholars indeed truly deserve these compliments, especially
Mr Farani's book was the first on the topic written in Pakistan (its
reprint has just been brought out).
Despite a few minor lapses, Dr Durrani's book is a 'must-read' for
all those who are concerned with teaching of Urdu and the students of
MA, MPhil and PhD Urdu and Education can learn quite a few new things. Dawn
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12 fellowships to be offered to MPhil students
Islamabad: For the first time in Pakistan, 12 fellowships would be offered to M.Phil
students for under training research on federalism related issues under
joint collaboration between Higher Education Commission (HEC) and United
Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
The main objective
of these fellowships is to encourage academic research amongst
university students on federalism and decentralisation. These
fellowships would be awarded through a well-defined transparent
mechanism keeping in view regional and gender representation and a joint
committee of HEC-UNDP would select the scholars. The offered
fellowships would cover expenditure related to university fee,
supervisor honorarium, book allowance and provision of laptop.
fellowships are being awarded by UNDP project tilted 'Strengthening
Participatory Federalism and Decentralisation' which aims at
strengthening the culture of inter-governmental relations, improving
social sector governance in provinces, enhancing capacity on issues of
federalism and decentralisation and exploring possibilities of
initiating participatory local government at district level.
on this joint HEC-UNDP collaboration, Chairperson HEC Dr. Javaid R.
Laghari has appreciated the gesture of UNDP for sponsoring fellowships
for university students of Pakistan. He assured utmost cooperation of
HEC in effective implementation of scheme and reiterated HEC commitment
to encourage research over the relevant issues pertaining to Pakistani
society. The news
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