Matric supple exams | HEC & Urdu researchers
Submission of supple exam forms
Karachi, Aug 28: Supplementary examination forms for Class X Science and General group (regular and
private) will be accepted without any late fee from August 28 to
A sum of Rs200 will be charged as late fee
from September 9 to 16, announced Board of Secondary Education Karachi
(BSEK) Controller of Examinations Noman Ahsan on Tuesday.
A sum of Rs500 will be charged from September 17 to 22 while a late fee of Rs1,000 will be charged from September 23 to 30.
board would not give any further extensions in this regard, added
Ahsan. The examination forms will be accepted at the branches of banks
located within the premises of the BSEK.
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BIEK revokes affiliation of four colleges
Karachi: The Board of Intermediate Education Karachi (BIEK) revoked the affiliation
of four private colleges on Monday for their persistent failure to
improve results over the past four years.
chairman, Anwar Ahmed Zai, said that not a single student from the four
colleges – the Allama Iqbal Intermediate Girls College, Steel Town; Al
Hadeed College for Science, Commerce and Arts, Gulshan-e-Hadeed; Askari
Intermediate College, Gulshan-e-Hadeed and The Paradise College, North
Nazimabad – had passed an exam over the past four years.
advised all parents against enrolling children in these colleges and
warned that they would be solely responsible for their results if they
still choose to go for these blacklisted institutes. "We had notified
these colleges on a number of occasions, but their persistent failure to
improve results forced us to take this step of revoking their
affiliation. This has been done for the first time," Zai said at a
presser held to announce the result of the pre-medical, home economics
and medical technology exams.
Shahzeb College, North
Karachi; Jauhar College of Information Technology and Management
Sciences, Gulshan-e-Iqbal; Jamia Millia Government College (Morning),
Malir; Ashrafi Intermediate College, Gulshan-e-Iqbal; Government Girls'
Higher Secondary School, Murad Memon Goth; Allama Iqbal Government Boys
Higher Secondary School, Sohrab Goth; Jinnah Intermediate College for
Girls, Nazimabad; Government Comprehensive Boys Higher Secondary School,
Korangi No 3; Seerat-e-Complex HSS, Landhi and the MW Inter College,
Nazimabad, also failed to achieve anything more than 'zero-percent'
results in the exams. The news
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HEC and dilemma of Urdu researchers
Karachi: Creation of knowledge is the golden key to progress. But it cannot
take place without research. Ours is a society that has generally been
averse to research. It is, however, heartening to note that things are
looking up now and issues related to research now commonly surface at
As for Urdu's literary research, we have a
steady flow of published research dissertations and research journals.
Most of the Urdu departments at our universities now regularly publish
research journals and try to meet the criterion set by the Higher
Education Commission (HEC) for accreditation. One such research journal
is 'Tehqeeqi zaviye' published by the Department of Urdu and Pakistani
Languages, Al-Khair University, Bhimber, Azad Kashmir. Launched in
January 2013, the biannual journal has already brought out its fourth
issue. The journal carries a number of invaluable research articles
contributed by some well-know scholars. But today I would like to
highlight an issue that its editor, Dr Rasheed Amjad, has raised in his
two editorials: the citation styles used in Urdu dissertations and
research papers at our universities and the standard of research.
first issue that every researcher has to settle before he or she starts
writing research paper or thesis is: what citation style am I going to
Generally speaking, there are two different styles of
citations used in the research works of sciences and humanities.
One is referred to as Parenthetical System or Harvard Referencing, in
which the references to the sources used in research are mentioned in
the body of the text of the research work. The name of the author, the
year of publication and the page number/s of the works cited are
mentioned within the brackets and bibliographical details are given at
the end of the paper.
The other system of citation is known as
Vancouver System (a committee of experts met in Vancouver, Canada, and
ironed out the differences, hence the name). This system favours
assigning numbers to the portions of text that need citations and then
giving bibliographical details in the numbered footnotes (notes given at
the bottom of the page) or endnotes (notes given at the end of the
This system, too, has slightly different
styles. For example, some researchers say all the bibliographical
details should be given in the footnotes/endnotes, while others opine
that the numbers corresponding to the ones allotted in the text of the
work should only refer to the name of the author, title of the work
cited and page number/s. Other details, such as the year and place of
publication, edition and publisher's name, should be mentioned in a
separate list at the end (which is usually known as bibliography or, in
more recent works, as references).
So what is the issue? The
problem is that with the passage of time these citation styles have been
further developed into different style sheets or style manuals. These
are used both for sciences and humanities research, though some of them
overlap in certain aspects. These different citations or style manuals
give minute details about references, footnotes, bibliography,
punctuation, the use of capital or small letters, formatting and even
page-making and the title-page.
Some of these citation style
guides are known as: APA (American Psychological Association), AMA
(American Medical Association), ASA (American Sociological Society), MLA
(Modern Language Association), ACS (American Chemical Society), Hart's
Rules (Oxford University Press), CMS or CMOS (The Chicago manual of
Style, often referred to as Chicago Manual or just Chicago) and
Turabian, to name but a few.
Since Pakistani literary research
circles prefer Chicago Manual and/or Turabian style of citation and
these are considered authentic citation and formatting manuals
worldwide, too, it would not be out of place to briefly introduce them.
The CMS is a writing and citation guide for writers, editors,
publishers, proof readers, printers, publishers, indexers, copywriters
Revised every 10 years or so, the CMS's 16th
edition appeared in 2010. In the preface to its 14th edition (1993), an
interesting piece of history is narrated, which I want to share with the
readers: "A century ago, in the proof room of the then young University
of Chicago Press, a solitary proof reader began jotting down on a
single sheet of paper a few basic style rules. Within a few years this
modest list of rules had grown into a multi-page collection titled
'Style Book', and within a few more years - by 1906 - a still larger
collection was published, this time bearing the title 'Manual of Style'.
From such early beginnings the collected guidelines of The
University of Chicago Press have continued to grow in quantity and
breadth of coverage, and although the purpose was, and remains, to
establish rules, the renunciation, in the preface to the 1906 edition,
of an authoritarian position in favour of common sense and flexibility
has always been a fundamental and abiding principle.
Now a bit about the style and
citation manual often briefly called Turabian. Named after its author
Kate Larimore Turabian (1893-1987), a lady who worked for the University
of Chicago, 'A manual for writers of research papers, theses and
dissertations' was first published in 1937 and has sold over eight
million copies. Now in its 8th edition (2013), it is in fact a kind of
spin-off from CMS and is specifically intended for research students
Coming to citations in Urdu, one has to
agree with Dr Rasheed Amjad who says that we have so far not been able
to develop an agreed-upon system of citations and referencing. In his
editorial, he says that "these days there are two systems that are in
vogue in Urdu, the first one favours writing the last name first, for
example 'Dr Vaheed Qureshi' is mentioned as 'Qureshi, Dr Vaheed'. This
is in line with the international standards of citations but there are
some scholars who do not approve of this practice. Similarly, there is a
difference of opinion as to whether or not the name of the publisher be
mentioned before the place, for example, 'Sang-e-Meel, Lahore' or
Those who do not agree with the practice
say that eastern and Islamic names sometimes are inseparable. How would
one mention, they ask, for example, names such as Abdullah, Abdul Haq or
Mahir-ul-Qadri? Ul-Qadri, Mahir? Or Qadri, Mahir-ul? And how would one
write it in Urdu script (since 'ul' is not written separately? Another
issue is the names of the female writers. If her name is not in three
parts, mentioning it becomes a bit awkward. For example, 'Dr Najeeba
Arif' is often cited as 'Arif, Dr Najeeba', while in fact 'Arif' is her
husband's name and not a family name or surname.
Dr Rasheed Amjad
suggests that these issues should be taken seriously and some sort of
body or department must be founded to decide the issues, so that some
kind of uniformity is brought in and the standard of research too may be
raised. One hopes the HEC would come forward and shoulder the
responsibility. And one should not forget the guiding principle laid
down by the Chicago manual: common sense and flexibility. Dawn
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7th Int'l Urdu Conference being held from Oct 16-19
Karachi: Seventh International Urdu Conference would be held from
October 16 to October 19 this year. International Mushaira would also be
part of the Urdu Conference. Arts Council Karachi Secretary Muhammad
Ahmed Shah at press conference said in the upcoming event, Urdu theatre,
eastern music, eastern dances and paintings have also been included.
Apart from this, Urdu-English bilingual sessions would also be held for
the immense participation of youth, he said. He said poets, scholars,
intellectuals, writers and critics from several countries including
India, Iran, Bangladesh, United States of America, Canada, Germany,
Turkey, Russia and Egypt were taking part in the event. Arts Council
Awards would also be given on the occasion. Daily times
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